1.2.1 Capital Letters
1.2.3 Grammar Rules
1.1.1 Understanding the Basics
The English alphabet has 26 letters. In alphabetical order, they are:
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Five of the letters are “vowels”. Twenty-one are “consonants”:
a e i o u
b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z
Words are a mix of vowels and consonants
Sometimes consonants need two or three consonant to created together a word.
The pronunciation of a word may vary based on its consonants.
Letters Sounds Examples
b [b] baby, best, buy, bring, blind, absent, about, number, labor, robber, tub
C [s] center, cellar, cigarette, cinema, agency, notice;
[k] cake, come, cucumber, clean, cry, scratch, act, panic
d [d] day, dear, die, door, duty, admire, hidden, lady, kind, ride, ended
f [f] fast, female, five, forest, fund, fry, flight, often, deaf, cuff
g [g] game, gap, get, go, gun, great, global, giggle, ago, begin, dog, egg;
[j] general, gin, giant, agent, suggest, Egypt, energy, huge, manage;
[zh] mirage, garage, beige, rouge
h [h] hair, help, history, home, hotel, hunt, behind, inherit;
[-] hour, honor, honest, heir, vehicle, Sarah
j [j] jam, Jane, jet, jelly, Jim, jingle, joke, John, June, just
k [k] Kate, kind, kill, kilogram, sky, blanket, break, take, look
l [l] late, let, live, alone, close, slim, please, old, nicely, table, file, all
m [m] make, men, mind, mother, must, my, common, summer, name, form, team
n [n] napkin, never, night, no, nuclear, funny, student, kindness, ton, sun
p [p] paper, person, pick, pour, public, repair, apple, keep, top, crisp
q (qu) [kw] quality, question, quite, quote, equal, require;
[k] unique, technique, antique, grotesque
r [r] rain, red, rise, brief, grow, scream, truck, arrive, hurry, turn, more, car
s [s] send, simple, song, system, street, lost, kiss, release;
[z] cause, present, reason, realism, advise, always, is, was
t [t] task, tell, time, tone, tune, hotel, attentive, student, boat, rest
v [v] vast, vein, vivid, voice, even, review, invest, give, move, active
w [w] wall, war, way, west, wind, word, would, swear, swim, twenty, twist
x [ks] exercise, exchange, expect, ex-wife, axis, fix, relax;
[gz] exam, exact, executive, exert, exist, exit, exult;
[z] Xenon, Xerox, xenophobia, xylophone
z [z][ts] zero, zoo, horizon, puzzle, crazy, organize, quiz, jazz;
pizza, Mozart, Nazi, waltz.
• We distinguish a capital letter (A) and a lower case letter (a)
• We start a new sentence or the first word with capital letter.
• After a period (.) we start with capital letter.
• Countries, main characters, presidents, tittles, names and last names, start with capital letter.
1.1.2 Ideas to motivate students in their education progress
Create a Calendar
• Use the calendar to record times for classes or events, or to display schedules for programs rehearsals, practice times for sporting events, field trips, etc.
• Create a classroom job assignment using the calendar. List jobs and students assigned to those jobs. If desired, list jobs and students for the entire months so students can track when they will have a classroom job to complete.
• Set a Happy face goal each week. For each day the class exhibits good behavior, such as doing their work quietly, paying attention to lessons, not talking out of turn, etc., Place a copy of the happy face pattern (at right) over that day on the calendar. When the class earns a certain number of happy faces by the end of the week, plan a special treat.
• Use it for Birthdays with a Kid-Drawn Border Chart to record the birthdays of your students. Draw the number of candles equal to a student’s age in the square of his birthday.
• Use it as Parent information to help them to keep track of important events. Copy the blank calendar and write important dates to remember, such as Open House, Parent. /Teacher meetings, class parties, etc. Copy the completed calendar for each students to take home.
• Use it to record Historical Events that happened during the month. Write the events in the calendar and let students choose one. Have material available or schedule library time for students to complete research on these events. Oral and written reports could assigned. You may also use a laminated blank calendar to have the student’s research and record the events themselves. As reference, you may wish to provide a copy of Chase’s Annual Events (Contemporary Books, Inc.), which included special days, weeks, anniversaries, and observances from around the world.
• Let students to make/create their own calendar. Copy the blank calendar for each child. Tell the class how many days there are in the current month and show then square in which they should start numbering the days. Have students fill in the numbereral in the correct order. Let students use their personal calendars to mark holidays, birthdays, assignment due dates, special school events, etc.
• Calendar Math, reinforce numbers concepts, such as counting, numbers sequencing, addition, subtraction, etc. With the Calendar with Kid-Drawn Border. Post word problems under the calendar and let students use the calendar to solve them. Word problems could include:
The club to which you belong meets on the fourth Monday of this month. What is the date of this month’s meeting?
Two video rentals were due on the tenth of this months. You return them on the twelfth. The late charge is two dollars per day. How much do you owe?
What date will it be three weeks from today?
What Day is Worth? Provide coin manipulatives or real money for the class. Each day, let students count out different amounts of money equal to the date. For example, on the 14th, students could count out 14 pennies; 2 nickels and 4 pennies. Store the money manipulatives near the calendar or at a math center.
Weather Forecaster; record the daily weather on the calendar with Kid-Draw Border Chart. Let students create and tape weather symbols to the chart. Provide 3 1/2” x3” construction paper squares, crayons, and markers. Students may draw suns for sunny days, umbrellas for rainy days, etc. Older students can act as daily/weekly weather reporters and a gather information from newspaper, radio, or television as well as from personal observation. Let the reporters five extended forecast and lace the appropriate symbols on the correct das. Follow up on the predictions!
Seasonal cover –ups; at the beginning of the each month, have each child cut a 3 1/2 x3’ square of constructions paper and decorate it to match her favorite holiday. Choose a student –made cover-up to use with your Calendar for each holiday in the month. Encourage children to make cover-ups for fall holidays such as Thanksgiving and Columbus Day, winter holidays like Christmas and Hanukkah, spring holidays such as Earth Day and Easter, and summer holidays like Independence Day and Father’s Day. (Carlson-Dellosa Publishing)
Happy Face Pattern