Archives for category: Literacy

This guide is intended to be use as an example to follow in a curriculum to preschool. Teachers or instructors can freely choose what ideas can be taught to their students.


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Standard 1, Reading:  Word Recognition, Fluency and Vocabulary.

  • Teach students that printed materials such as books carry a message of a concept
  • Teach students to describe pictures from printed materials and asked the child to tell a story about the picture
  • Teach students to be aware of the sound structure of their native language
  • Teach students the sounds and phonemes of spoken words
  • Teach students the relationship between letters and sounds
  • Engage the students in conversation that they can have the opportunity to build an extensive vocabulary

Concepts about printed materials

LA.P.1.1 Pretend to read a book while holding it right side up and look at the print and pictures, then turn the pages on at the time from the from to the back.

LA.P.1.2 Name objects from a picture book.

LA.P.1.3 Distinguish print from pictures.

LA.P.1.4 Name 10 upper case letters.

LA.P.1.5 Point to and name ten letters.

LA.P.1.6 Tell a story while holding a book, use simple sentences to tell the story, turn the pages and show pictures.

LA.P.1.7 Tell something that a favorite character does in a story.

Concepts about Phonological Awareness

LA.P.1.8 Sing a song about the alphabet.

LA.P.1.9 Generate sounds from letters.

LA.P.1.10 Generate a blend the sounds of letter patterns into recognizable words.

LA.P.1.11 Imitate simple rhymes by reciting or singing one rhyme. When reading a familiar rhyme, stop before a rhyming word and encourage the children to fill in the rhyme.

LA.P.1.12 Clap out syllables in word songs.

Concepts for decoding and word fluency

LA.P.1.13 Match the same letter in different styles. Ask the child to find any letter that you select in a different place in the classroom.

LA.P.1.14 Identify the first letter of their name.

LA.P.1.15 Match the sound that begins their name with the sound that begins another word name.

LA.P.1.16 Recognize their name in isolated printed. Label students belongings with their name and take time to tell students the letters in their name and have the students repeat the names of those letters while pointing at them.

LA.P.1.17 Match like letters.

Vocabulary and concept development

LA.P.1.18 Use new vocabulary learned from experience. Provide students time and opportunities to talk about family and self. Help the student expand their vocabulary by repeating what they said while adding adjectives and other descriptive vocabulary to their stories.

LA.P.1.19 Identify 10 common signs or symbols.



Standard 2, Reading: Reading comprehension

  • Students need to be exposed to a variety of reading materials.
  • Students need to see adults obtaining and using information from different printed sources.
  • Students need to recognized different formats in which information is provided.

Structural Features of information and Technical materials

LA. P.2. 1 Select a favorite book by the title of the story.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-appropriate Text

LA. P.2. 2 Tell stories from pictures and books.

LA.P.2.3 Share information related to a story event

LA.P.2.4 Tell at least one thing that happens in a familiar story

LA.P.2.5 Identify the beginning, middle and end of a story



Standard 3, Reading:  Literacy Response and Analysis

  • Students need to be exposed to many types of books and stories to help them develop the habit of reading as life-long learning.
  • Teachers and parents should find time daily to read to the students.

Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Narratives (Stories)

LA.P.3.1 Act out an imaginary event.

LA.P.3.2 Ask adults to read different printed material to the students.

LA.P.3.3 Before beginning to read an story talk about the cover and illustrations.

LA.P.3.4 Describe the place pictured in a book.

LA.P.3.5 Identify a favorite story.



Standard 4, Writing:  The Writing process

  • Give positive feedback to students when teaching them to write.

LA.P.4.1 Draw pictures, scribbles, letters and words to generate and express ideas.

LA.P.4.2 Use letters to represent written language.

LA.P.4.3 Associate writing with words.

LA.P.4.4 Dictate something for an adult to write down.

LA.P.4.5 Position paper for writing.

LA.P.4.6 Draw at the top and the bottom of the paper when requested.

LA.P.4.7 Read own writing by reading what I says. For example, allow students to read and explain their scribbles and attends and writing.



Standard 5, Writing:  Writing Applications

  • Students learn to write as they learn to talk from adults and other children by using rudimentary forms of writing.
  • Students need to see themselves and other engaged in the process of writing oral language into symbols and decoding writing language into speech in ordinary daily life in many different contexts and for many different purposes.
  • Praise students on any attend to communicate through writing.

LA.P5.1 Use symbols and writing to share an idea with someone. For example, students add writing to a picture story and label their drawings.

LA.P5.2 Give writing to someone as means of communication. For example, Students scribble a name on a card to invite someone to come for a school visit.



Standard 6, Writing:  Writing Native language Conventions

  • Students begin to learn the writing conventions of their standard native language.


LA.P.6.1 Copy a vertical line from top to bottom.

LA.P.6.2 Copy a horizontal line from left to right.

LA.P.6.3 Copy a circle in a counterclockwise direction.

LA.P.6.4 Combine strokes and shapes to represent letters.

LA.P.6.5 Use the correct grasp of the writing tool.


LA.P.6.6 Write letters in strings from left to right.

LA.P.6.7 Use different combinations of letters to achieve sounds.

LA.P.6.8 Write more than one word correctly. For Example, Use consonant-short vowel-consonant words like “cat” or “big” or “red”.



Standard 7, Listening and Speaking:  Listening and Speaking Skills, Strategies and Applications

  • Students need an environment filled with rich language and many opportunities to hear how language is being used for different purposes.
  • Talking is one of the best ways that will make students familiar with the words and ideas that they will need to enjoy and understand math, science, history, art and other academic subjects they will encounter later.


LA.P.7.1 Name sounds heard in the environment.

LA.P.7.2 Follow one-step and two-step directions without additional prompts.

Oral Communication

LA.P.7.3 Upon request students share information about themselves. For example, students will provide their name, age, gender and other information that the teacher requests. Students will also learn when is appropriate to provide information to others.

LA.P.7.4 With adult assistant, students learn to solve conflicts by using language instead of force.

LA.P.7.5 Engage students in reciprocal conversations for 2 to 3 exchanges.

LA.P.7.6 Teach students the use of courtesy words. For example, students will use words like please, thank you, you are welcome and excuse me in their interactions with their peers and adults.

Speaking applications

LA.P.7.7 Students learn to identify attributes of family members or self-using two familiar attributes. For example, students can learn to describe their eye color and hair color. Students can also talk about how tall they are compared to others in their family and so on.

LA.P.7.8 Students learn to identify categories of objects in pictures and classify categories of words. For example, show the students pictures of different colored shapes and asked them to describe the ways in which they will sort the objects based on color and or shape.

LA.P.7.9 Students repeat simple five word sentences as presented. For example, teach students sentences or phases and have them repeat everyday each morning.

LA.P.7.10 Tell stories to the students using five-word sentences with nouns, verbs, auxiliary verbs, pronouns and or plurals.

LA.P.7.11 Express what might happen after the action in a picture. Generalize a solution to a new situation.



Standard 1: Number Sense

  • Students learn the meaning of numbers in the everyday experiences that adults provide in the home and classrooms. Students need opportunities to watch, play, and interact with adults and other children to learn number vocabulary and to discover number relationships.
  • Developing numbers give students the ability to think and works with number easily, understand their uses and describe their relationships.

P.1.1 Apply one-to-one correspondence with objects and people and count each object only once. For example, have the students count their fingers and have them touch their fingers as they count.

P.1.2 Have students imitate counting behavior using the names of large numbers. For example, recite with the students the number of days of the calendar while pointing to the number.

P.1.3 Identify first and last. For Example, make students line-up and have them identify who is first in line and who is last in line.

P.1.4 Use whole numbers and match number symbols with amounts up to 5. For example, when told and or shown a number from 1 to five, students will draw a set of objects to represent that number.

P.1.5 Identify when objects are the same number, even when the arrangement is change. For example, show the students two sets of equal numbers or objects. Then, discuss how they are the same.

P.1.6 Give “all” objects when asked. Give “some” and give “the rest” when asked. For example, ask students to take crayons or colors out of their boxes by requesting all, some or the rest.

P.1.7 Communicate the meaning of “half”. For example, give students a snack or an object and asked them to split the snack of object in half and share with a friend.

P.1.8 Identify the concept of “none”. For example, Place an empty box on a table. Then, asked students how many objects are inside the box.

P.1.9 Rote counts to 10. For example, ask students to count to 10 on their own memory.

P.1.10 Teach students to identify the next number in a series of numbers up to 10. For example ask the students what counts next after the number 8.

P.1.11 Teach the students to count backward from 10. For example, have the students pretend that they are astronauts and do the blast-off countdown.

Standard 2: Computation

  • Learning to model, explain, and use addition and subtraction concepts in problem solving situation begins with the opportunity for young children to count sort, compare objects and describe their thinking and observations in everyday situations.
  • In building the foundation for computation, children need opportunities to observe adults and peers applying mathematical concepts and using problem-solving techniques.

P.2.1 Trade several smaller items for a large item.

P.2.2 Identify and use the concepts of “one more” and “one less”.

P.2.3 Make a collection of items larger by adding items, when asked.

P.2.4 Make a collection of items smaller by taking away items, when asked.

P.2.5 Make guesses related to quantity.

P.2.6 Describe addition situations for number less than 5. For example put together a pile of 2 books and 1 book and ask students to count how many in all.

P.2.7 Describe subtraction situations for number less than 5. For example form a pile of 4books, take away 2 books and ask students to count how many are left in the pile.

P.2.8 Break apart a whole quantity of something into a set.

P.2.9. Combine a whole quantity of something.

Standard 3: Algebra and Functions


Students learn to build the foundations for finding patterns and their relationships by exploring environments that are rich in shapes, sizes, colors and textures. Students learn to identify and describe patterns using mathematical language when there are opportunities to sort, classify, and label things in their environment. Children need hands-on their activities to explore and describe patterns and relationships involving number, shapes, data and graphs in problem solving.

P.3.1 Students learn to imitate patterns of sound and movement. For example, sing a song that has hand motions and repeats a pattern of movements.

P.3.2 Students reproduce three patterns of sounds and movement. For example, ask students to imitate your body and speech in a game.

P.3.3 Students learn to reproduce simple patterns of concrete objects. For example, Make a pattern of squares and circles with one square, one circle, one square, one circle, one square and ask students to guess what should come next.

P.3.4 Students learn to predict what comes next when shown a simple pattern of concrete objects. For example, Students make a pattern of squares and circles with one square, one circle, one square, one circle, on square and ask students to guess what should come next.

P.3.5 Students learn to classify categories of objects and name the group of objects. For example, give students a set of objects of various mixed colors and sizes. Ask students to put them into groups by how they are the same, let them decide either color or shape, and then have them explain their sorting decision.

P.3.6 Students learn to sort a group of objects by more than one way. For example take the same set used in P.3.5 and ask the students to sort the objects differently.

P.3.7 Students learn to communicate when something does not belong or should not happen. For example, students create a set of four objects, three blue crayons and one red. Ask students to tell you which crayon does not belong and why they made that decision.

Standard 4: Geometry


Students need opportunities to explore the size, shape, position, and movement of objects within their physical environment. Spatial reasoning begins as children become aware of their bodies and personal space. Students learn to recognize, draw and described shapes by manipulating, playing with, tracing, and making common shapes using real objects in a variety of activities.

P.4.1 Provide clues for finding hidden objects. For Example, hide an object in the classroom and play a game that gives students hints on when they are close to the object and when they are far away.

P.4.2 Discriminate an object that is pulled apart and one that is pulled together. For example, show students pictures of objects that are either whole or in parts and ask them to identify the whole and the parts. Then, discuss the concepts of part and whole.

P.4.3 Identify parts of an object. For example, name 10 body parts.

P.4.4 Copy a vertical and horizontal line.

P.4.5 Identify attributes of an object and sort a group of objects by an attribute. For example, from a pile of crayons, have students sort by color or size.

P.4.6 Use position words, “in” or “out”, “on” or “off”, “here” or “there”, “beside” or “next to” to indicate where things are in space. Follow instructions to indicate an object in the indicated space. For example: Play a game where your students move an object according to the teacher’s oral directions using position words in the directions, such as “place the pencil on the desk” or “place the pencil next to the book”.

P.4.7 Identify and copy circles, squares, triangles, and rectangles.

Standard 5: Measurement


Students need the opportunity to explore and discover measurement and apply the results to real life situations in order to construct concepts of measurement.

P.5.1 Follow steps in a routine such a daily schedule. Tell what activity comes first and what follows in sequence in a three-event sequence. For example, Create class routines for how students will perform tasks, such as hanging backpacks and unpacking bags. Establish a three-step routine for a daily activity such as making a sandwich. Ask students to talk about what comes first, next and last.

P.5.2 order three object by size. For example give students a small. medium, and large size book and ask them to line them up in order from smallest to largest (going from left to right).

P.5.3 Use any descriptive word or gesture to express amount or size and communicate the size of things in relation to self. For example, ask students if a horse is bigger or smaller than they are.

P.5.4 Use cups and other measurement tools in the correct context. For example, set up a measuring activity, sand or water table with measuring cups, rulers, thermometers and scales so that students can practice measuring things. Discuss with students which measuring tool is the best for certain situations.

P.5.5 Identify when something is hot or cold.

P.5.6 Sort objects into long and short and use the words to describe what they are doing. For example, hold two books side by side to show which is shorter. Give students two straws to determine which is shorter.

P.5.7 Indentify when something is too heavy to lift. For example, show students a feather and a table. Ask students what they can pick up.

P.5.8 Relate time to events. Associate time-related concepts. For example, show students a clock and a calendar. Ask students to guess how these things are use to measure time. Talk about concepts like morning, afternoon, week, month, and year.

Standard 6: Problem Solving


Students succeed in building a foundation for problem solving situations when they have experiences in collecting objects and information as well as opportunities to organize, describe and when they graphically represent these collections. To build this foundation, students need to hear, use, and apply relevant vocabulary while formulating questions and possible solutions with other based on observations.


1.2.1 Capital Letters

1.2.2 Punctuation

1.2.3 Grammar Rules

1.2.1 Capital Letters

1.2.2 Punctuation

1.2.3 Grammar Rules


1.1.1 English Alphabet

1.1.2 Cyrillic Alphabet

1.1.3 Arabic Alphabet

1.1.4 Spanish Alphabet

1.1.5 French Alphabet

1.1.1 Understanding the Basics

The Alphabet
The English alphabet has 26 letters. In alphabetical order, they are:
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Five of the letters are “vowels”. Twenty-one are “consonants”:
5 vowels

a e i o u
b c d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z

21 consonants

Words are a mix of vowels and consonants
Sometimes consonants need two or three consonant to created together a word.
The pronunciation of a word may vary based on its consonants.

Refer to:

Letters Sounds Examples
b [b] baby, best, buy, bring, blind, absent, about, number, labor, robber, tub
C [s] center, cellar, cigarette, cinema, agency, notice;
[k] cake, come, cucumber, clean, cry, scratch, act, panic
d [d] day, dear, die, door, duty, admire, hidden, lady, kind, ride, ended
f [f] fast, female, five, forest, fund, fry, flight, often, deaf, cuff
g [g] game, gap, get, go, gun, great, global, giggle, ago, begin, dog, egg;
[j] general, gin, giant, agent, suggest, Egypt, energy, huge, manage;
[zh] mirage, garage, beige, rouge
h [h] hair, help, history, home, hotel, hunt, behind, inherit;
[-] hour, honor, honest, heir, vehicle, Sarah
j [j] jam, Jane, jet, jelly, Jim, jingle, joke, John, June, just
k [k] Kate, kind, kill, kilogram, sky, blanket, break, take, look
l [l] late, let, live, alone, close, slim, please, old, nicely, table, file, all
m [m] make, men, mind, mother, must, my, common, summer, name, form, team
n [n] napkin, never, night, no, nuclear, funny, student, kindness, ton, sun
p [p] paper, person, pick, pour, public, repair, apple, keep, top, crisp
q (qu) [kw] quality, question, quite, quote, equal, require;
[k] unique, technique, antique, grotesque
r [r] rain, red, rise, brief, grow, scream, truck, arrive, hurry, turn, more, car
s [s] send, simple, song, system, street, lost, kiss, release;
[z] cause, present, reason, realism, advise, always, is, was
t [t] task, tell, time, tone, tune, hotel, attentive, student, boat, rest
v [v] vast, vein, vivid, voice, even, review, invest, give, move, active
w [w] wall, war, way, west, wind, word, would, swear, swim, twenty, twist
x [ks] exercise, exchange, expect, ex-wife, axis, fix, relax;
[gz] exam, exact, executive, exert, exist, exit, exult;
[z] Xenon, Xerox, xenophobia, xylophone
z [z][ts] zero, zoo, horizon, puzzle, crazy, organize, quiz, jazz;
pizza, Mozart, Nazi, waltz.

We distinguish a capital letter (A) and a lower case letter (a)
• We start a new sentence or the first word with capital letter.
• After a period (.) we start with capital letter.
• Countries, main characters, presidents, tittles, names and last names, start with capital letter.

A a
B b
C c
D d
E e
F f
G g
H h
K k
L l
M m
N n
O o
P p
Q q
R r
S s
T t
U u
V v
W w
X x
Y y
Z z

1.1.2 Ideas to motivate students in their education progress

Create a Calendar

• Use the calendar to record times for classes or events, or to display schedules for programs rehearsals, practice times for sporting events, field trips, etc.
• Create a classroom job assignment using the calendar. List jobs and students assigned to those jobs. If desired, list jobs and students for the entire months so students can track when they will have a classroom job to complete.
• Set a Happy face goal each week. For each day the class exhibits good behavior, such as doing their work quietly, paying attention to lessons, not talking out of turn, etc., Place a copy of the happy face pattern (at right) over that day on the calendar. When the class earns a certain number of happy faces by the end of the week, plan a special treat.
• Use it for Birthdays with a Kid-Drawn Border Chart to record the birthdays of your students. Draw the number of candles equal to a student’s age in the square of his birthday.
• Use it as Parent information to help them to keep track of important events. Copy the blank calendar and write important dates to remember, such as Open House, Parent. /Teacher meetings, class parties, etc. Copy the completed calendar for each students to take home.
• Use it to record Historical Events that happened during the month. Write the events in the calendar and let students choose one. Have material available or schedule library time for students to complete research on these events. Oral and written reports could assigned. You may also use a laminated blank calendar to have the student’s research and record the events themselves. As reference, you may wish to provide a copy of Chase’s Annual Events (Contemporary Books, Inc.), which included special days, weeks, anniversaries, and observances from around the world.
• Let students to make/create their own calendar. Copy the blank calendar for each child. Tell the class how many days there are in the current month and show then square in which they should start numbering the days. Have students fill in the numbereral in the correct order. Let students use their personal calendars to mark holidays, birthdays, assignment due dates, special school events, etc.
• Calendar Math, reinforce numbers concepts, such as counting, numbers sequencing, addition, subtraction, etc. With the Calendar with Kid-Drawn Border. Post word problems under the calendar and let students use the calendar to solve them. Word problems could include:
 The club to which you belong meets on the fourth Monday of this month. What is the date of this month’s meeting?
 Two video rentals were due on the tenth of this months. You return them on the twelfth. The late charge is two dollars per day. How much do you owe?
 What date will it be three weeks from today?
What Day is Worth? Provide coin manipulatives or real money for the class. Each day, let students count out different amounts of money equal to the date. For example, on the 14th, students could count out 14 pennies; 2 nickels and 4 pennies. Store the money manipulatives near the calendar or at a math center.
Weather Forecaster; record the daily weather on the calendar with Kid-Draw Border Chart. Let students create and tape weather symbols to the chart. Provide 3 1/2” x3” construction paper squares, crayons, and markers. Students may draw suns for sunny days, umbrellas for rainy days, etc. Older students can act as daily/weekly weather reporters and a gather information from newspaper, radio, or television as well as from personal observation. Let the reporters five extended forecast and lace the appropriate symbols on the correct das. Follow up on the predictions!
Seasonal cover –ups; at the beginning of the each month, have each child cut a 3 1/2 x3’ square of constructions paper and decorate it to match her favorite holiday. Choose a student –made cover-up to use with your Calendar for each holiday in the month. Encourage children to make cover-ups for fall holidays such as Thanksgiving and Columbus Day, winter holidays like Christmas and Hanukkah, spring holidays such as Earth Day and Easter, and summer holidays like Independence Day and Father’s Day. (Carlson-Dellosa Publishing)

Happy Face Pattern
1.1.3 Activity 1